Sexual Crimes in Conflict Database

A collection of relevant literature and case law

Showing all 2 results.
  • Literature

    Ahram, Ariel I. - Sexual Violence and the Making of ISIS

    Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War
    Syria, Iraq
    ISIS Masculinity Sexual Enslavement Hierarchy Right of Ownership

    Reference link
    Full reference
    Ahram, Ariel I., "Sexual Violence and the Making of ISIS", in Survival, 2015, vol. 57, no.3, pp. 57-78.
    Type of literature
    Journal Article
    Research focus
    Causality, Functionality and Logic of Conflict-related Sexual Violence
    Ahram, Ariel I.

  • Jurisprudence judicial mechanism

    ICC - Bosco Ntaganda

    Definitions/Elements of Sexual Violence Crimes Sexual Violence against Children Sexual Violence against Men
    Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
    Child Soldiers Children in Armed Conflict Coercion Active Participation in Hostilities Right of Ownership

    Reference link
    Type of mechanism
    International Criminal Tribunal/Court
    Name of mechanism
    International Criminal Court
    Name of accused
    Bosco Ntaganda
    Initially Ntaganda did not face charges of sexual violence and was only charged with his alleged responsibility for the war crimes of conscripting, enlisting children under the age of fifteen and using them to participate actively in hostilities, despite widespread documentation of sexual violence committed by the UPC by several international, national and local NGOs as well as UN agencies. In the Prosecution’s second warrant of arrest of 14 May 2012, which was issued by Pre-Trial Chamber II on 13 July 2012, additional charges against Ntaganda were added and included sexual violence.Ntaganda surrendered to the ICC’s custody voluntary on 22 March 2013. On 9 June 2014, Pre-Trial Chamber II unanimously confirmed charges against Ntaganda allegedly committed in 2002-2003 in the Ituri Province of the DRC, including: - Rape as a war crime (Article 8(2)(e)(vi) of the Statute); - Sexual slavery of civilians as war crimes (Article 8(2)(e)(vi) of the Statute); - Rape and sexual slavery of child soldiers as war crimes (Article 8(2)(e)(vi) of the Statute); - Rape as a crime against humanity; - Sexual slavery as a crime against humanity (see paras. 49-52; 53-57; 76-82). Ntaganda bears individual criminal responsibility pursuant to different modes of liability, namely: direct perpetration, indirect co-perpetration (article 25(3)(a) of the Statute); ordering, inducing (article 25(3)(b) of the Statute); any other contribution to the commission or attempted commission of crimes (article 25(3)(d) of the Statute); or as a military commander for crimes committed by his subordinates (article 28(a) of the Statute).
    Trial chamber verdict
    Second decision on the Defence’s challenge to the jurisdiction of the Court in respect of Counts 6 and 9, Trial Chamber VI, ICC-01/04-02/06-1707:On 1 September 2015, the Defence filed an application before the Trial Chamber of the International Criminal Court challenging the jurisdiction of the Court in respect of Counts 6, on rape of child soldiers as a war crime and count 9, regarding sexual slavery of child soldiers as a war crime. The core issue was whether rape and sexual slavery under Article 8(2) (b) (xxii) and (e)(vi) of the Rome Statute are limited to acts constituting grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 or serious violations of Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions.Judges of Trial Chamber II stated on 4 January 2017 that while most of the express prohibitions of rape and sexual slavery under international humanitarian law appear in contexts protecting civilians and persons hors de combat [outside the fight] in conflict, those explicit protections do not exhaustively define or limit the scope of the protection against such conduct. Limiting the scope of protection in the manner proposed by the defense “was contrary to the rationale of international humanitarian law, which aims to mitigate the suffering resulting from armed conflict.”
    Appeals chamber verdict
    Judgment on the appeal of Mr Ntaganda against the "Second decision on the Defence’s challenge to the jurisdiction of the Court in respect of Counts 6 and 9”, Appeals Chamber, ICC-01/04-02/06-1962:The Appeals Chamber affirmed that the ICC has jurisdiction over cases in which soldiers of an armed group commit war crimes against members of the same group. The Appeals Chamber considered that “international humanitarian law not only governs actions of parties to the conflict in relation to each other, but also concerns itself with protecting vulnerable persons during armed conflict and assuring fundamental guarantees to persons not taking active part in the hostilities.” Appeals judges noted that Article 8(2)(b)(xxii) and (2)(e)(vi) of the Rome Statute does not expressly provide that the victims of rape or sexual slavery must be “protected persons” in terms of the Geneva Conventions or “persons taking no active part in the hostilities.” That meant that members of an armed group are not categorically excluded from protection against the war crimes of rape and sexual slavery when committed by members of the same armed group.
    Case number

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